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Introduction of MVC

by Adarsh Pal
32 minutes read

MVC, which stands for Model-View-Controller, is a modern approach used in designing web applications today.

Think of MVC as a helpful guideline for building apps on the web, phones, and computers. It’s particularly useful for large projects because it breaks down different parts of an app, like how things look, how they work, and how data is stored, into separate pieces. This makes the app easier to manage and change over time. Many PHP frameworks, such as Zend and CodeIgniter, follow this approach.

What’s a PHP MVC Framework?

It’s a way of building apps using PHP where the parts that show things on the screen (views), the parts that make things happen (controllers), and the parts that handle data (models) are developed independently. This lets designers and developers work on their parts without getting tangled up in each other’s work, making the app’s components more flexible.

Advantages of MVC model

  1. Simple and Flexible: It’s an easy-to-understand solution for most web apps and can be adapted to different needs.
  2. Supports Advanced Apps: You can use it for complex apps without things getting too messy.
  3. Managing Workflow: It helps keep track of how the app should behave and how data moves around.
  4. Divides Code Smartly: The code is split into three main parts: what you see, how it works, and how it gets and stores data.
  5. Great for Teamwork: Especially useful if multiple people are working on the same app.
  6. Easy Testing and Maintenance: Because the parts are separate, it’s easier to test and fix things when needed.

Now, let’s talk about the different parts

Parts of MVC Model

  • Model: This is like the brain behind the scenes. It manages important stuff like data from a database (like user info or product orders). It knows how to talk to the database and does some basic thinking.
  • View: Imagine it as the face of the app. It shows things to the user. Different views can show the same information in different ways.
  • Controller: This is like the traffic cop. It takes requests from users, figures out what needs to happen, and makes sure the right parts do their job. It also talks to the model to get or store data.

So, to put it simply:

  • Model: Handles data and some thinking.
  • View: Shows things to the user.
  • Controller: Manages requests and tells other parts what to do.

MVC PHP Examples

Let’s break down the key concepts of MVC in a beginner-friendly way using PHP examples.

Imagine you’re building a website or app. MVC helps you build it in a structured and efficient manner by splitting it into three main parts:

  1. Model: Think of the Model as the brain of your application. It handles data and the logic associated with it. For instance, if you’re making a blog, the Model manages the blog posts, comments, and user data. In PHP, the Model could involve interacting with a database to store and retrieve this information.
class BlogModel {
    public function getBlogPosts() {
        // Code to fetch blog posts from a database
    public function saveComment($postId, $comment) {
        // Code to save a comment to a specific blog post
    // Other data-related functions...
  1. View: Imagine the View as the face of your application. It’s responsible for showing the data to users in a user-friendly way. In our blog example, the View would display the blog posts, comments, and user interfaces. In PHP, the View could be HTML templates mixed with PHP code.
class BlogView {
    public function showBlogPosts($posts) {
        foreach ($posts as $post) {
            // Code to display each blog post on the webpage
    public function showCommentForm($postId) {
        // Code to display a form for users to add comments
    // Other presentation-related functions...
  1. Controller: The Controller is like the coordinator. It takes input from users, interacts with the Model to get data, and then tells the View how to display that data. Going back to our blog, the Controller would handle actions like submitting comments and deciding which blog post to display. In PHP, the Controller could receive requests and route them accordingly.
class BlogController {
    protected $model;
    protected $view;
    public function __construct($model, $view) {
        $this->model = $model;
        $this->view = $view;
    public function showBlog() {
        $posts = $this->model->getBlogPosts();
    public function showCommentForm($postId) {
    // Other controller actions...

By using MVC, you can keep different parts of your app separate, making it easier to work on each part without affecting the others. It’s like having different experts focusing on different aspects of a project. In our blog scenario, the Model takes care of data, the View handles how things look, and the Controller manages the interactions between them.

This separation helps with teamwork, maintenance, and scaling as your app grows. Additionally, it makes testing and debugging easier, which is crucial for creating reliable software. Remember, while the examples are simplified, understanding the core concepts of MVC will help you build more organized and efficient applications as you dive deeper into the tech world.

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